“The World Will Hold Its Breath”

Those were Adolf Hitler’s words in December of 1940, as he revealed to his senior Wehrmacht Field Marshals and Generals his plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union.

At a few minutes past 0300 on the morning of 22 June 1941, the rumble of 8,000 artillery pieces shook the western positions of the Red Army, all along the new borders of the Soviet Union.  Simultaneously, more than 3,300 aircraft roared overhead on their way to attack Soviet airfields, troop concentrations, command posts, and artillery positions.  The most fateful day of the Twentieth Century had begun.

In the west, the Wehrmacht of Hitler’s Third Reich consisted of 2.5 million men and more than 4,000 tanks comprising 180 divisions, organized into three massive Army Groups, which were poised to smash their ideological and political enemies, the Bolshevik dictatorship of Stalin’s Soviet Russia.

Opposing the German onslaught was more than 3 million soldiers of Stalin’s Red Army.  Numerically superior to its German opponent in men, aircraft (4,000), and tanks (more than 7,000), the armies on the Soviet western boundary were nonetheless abysmally led and poorly trained.  Still reeling from Stalin’s 1937-39 purges of most of its officer corps, and from the bloody humiliation of the disastrous “Winter War” with Finland in the winter of 1939-40, the Red Army was ill-prepared for war against a modern western foe.

The Wehrmacht, on the other hand, was a finely tuned weapon of mechanized warfare, having conquered Poland two years earlier, and overrun France in less than six weeks in 1940.  Superbly trained and equipped with modern armor and the most advanced combat aircraft, the three German Army Groups shattered the Soviet forces opposite them.  The Luftwaffe swept the Red Air Force, the VVS, from the skies and smashed it on the ground.  By the end of the second day, more than 2,300 Soviet aircraft had been destroyed.    The Red Army was already being shattered and destroyed piecemeal, in what would be the “great battles of encirclement” of that summer and autumn of 1941, from which few escaped death or captivity.  The eradication of the VVS was nearly complete.  Nearly.  The Red Army almost bled to death.  Almost.   Yet, somehow, they held on.

Operation BARBAROSSA, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, more than any other, was Hitler’s war.  It was the war of Mein Kampf, the war for Lebensraum in the East, whose purpose was to open the great steppes for colonization by the Aryan race.  It was a war not just of conquest but of subjugation and annihilation, fought with a brutality that had not been seen in Europe since the Tatar conquests of seven centuries before.   It was a war of unspeakable horror and unimaginable suffering, by soldier and civilian alike.  Prisoners on both sides died by the millions, worked to death as slave labor, starved, or simply shot or hanged out of hand.  But it was also a war of grim and fatalistic heroism on both sides.   The German-Soviet conflict, when it ended in the rubble of Berlin nearly four years later, would take the lives of almost twenty-three million souls.

Some of the most enduring images of the Eastern Front, and for the Soviets the Great Patriotic War, are of columns of Russian and German prisoners forlornly marching to their fates (the Russians seemingly always in the dust of the summer, the Germans in the bitter cold of winter).  And of grainy images of executions and hangings by the German SS Einsatzgruppen, and far less publicized, of the execution of suspected Russian collaborators by field units of the NKVD, the terror apparatus of Stalin’s brutal regime.

There are lessons and cautions abundant in examining this titanic struggle.  Cautions about underestimating one’s enemy, his will to fight for family and homeland.  The Russian soldier, deemed racially inferior and incapable of waging modern war, proved individually tough, able to endure hardship and privation in startling measure.  He was also fanatical in the defense, fierce in the attack, and bore a hatred of the “blue-eyed oaf” that would be carried across the borders of Prussia with terrible effect.

The Russian was also capable of producing simple but highly effective weaponry, and of mastering its employment.   The T-34 and KV-1 tanks that began to appear in the autumn of 1941 were superior to any German design.  Soviet aircraft began to close the technology gap with the Luftwaffe far faster than anticipated.   Soviet artillery, superior to the Germans even in June of 1941, would dominate the battlefield as the Red Army’s “God of War”.   All these would surprise and confound the German commanders who were told to expect an enemy of limited intellect and poor character.

There are also many myths and misconceptions surrounding the struggle between these oppressive dictatorships.    Here are two:

  1.  The Wehrmacht was not capable of winning a short (ten-week) war against the Soviet Union.

Because the Germans did not win does not mean they were not capable of winning, or the Soviets capable of losing.  Had the Ostheer kept its focus on Moscow as the main objective (the plan was to surround, not enter the city), and had Hoth’s Panzers been unleashed in the first week of August, rather than frittered away in other operations until October, the capture of the European capital of the Soviet Union was within its capabilities.  Perhaps even more important than the purely political prize was the massive Soviet war industry that occupied the so-called “Moscow-Gorky Space”.   Siberian forces did not begin to arrive to defend the city and its immediate area in significant numbers until late September, 1941.  The capture of the Soviet war industry, which included the massive tank works at Gorky itself, and the aircraft engine factory at Kuibyshev, would have deprived the Soviet Union of its most valuable asset, the ability to replace the massive combat losses with more modern and capable equipment.  Had those factories been destroyed or fallen into German hands, there would have been no MiG or Yak fighters, no Il-2 Sturmoviks, no PE-2s, or any of the other increasingly modern aircraft that would eventually sweep the Luftwaffe from the sky.  There would have been no replacement divisions of T-34/76 and /85 tanks, no self-propelled guns, no artillery pieces to replace those lost in the massive battles or worn out in extensive combat.  Without those factories and the hardware they produced, there would have been no rehabilitation of the VVS or of the Red Army into the juggernaut that crushed Army Group Vistula into bits and eventually subsume eastern Germany.

  1. The Soviet Union was capable of defeating Nazi Germany without Allied assistance.

While it is true that the Soviet Union bore the unquestioned preponderance of the weight of German arms (at various times, 80% of German combat power was employed in the East, and nearly 80% of all German losses were inflicted by the Soviets), and the suffering and casualties of the Soviet military and civilian population exceeded the rest of the Allies combined by a wide margin, Stalin’s Russia could not have won the war without Allied, and particularly American, assistance.   While many are familiar with pictures of some of the 9,000 US and British tanks shipped to the Soviets under Lend-Lease, these represented only about 20% of Soviet tank production during the war.  There is little question upon any examination, however, that there were two absolutely critical areas of direct assistance were the linchpins of the survival of the Soviet Union in the dark days of 1941-43, and their drive to ultimate victory in 1944-45.  The first of these areas was in food production.  The United States shipped more than seventeen MILLION tons of food, wheat and canned goods, to the Soviet Union whose agricultural bread basket was under German occupation.  That food sustained the Red Army and Russian war industry workers when none other was available.  Without it, the prospects for Soviet victory would have been slim indeed.  The second item so critical to the Soviet war effort was the supply of more than half a million American trucks.  Tough, six-wheel drive vehicles which carried logistical supplies from the rear areas to the front, and which mounted the famous 122mm Katyusha rocket launchers by the tens of thousands, allowed the Red Army to supply itself on the battlefield in the defensive struggles of 1942 and carried that Army to the great offensive drives that eventually smashed the German Ostheer.  Those trucks represent more than 70% of total Soviet vehicle production, freeing their industries to produce the war weapons, tanks, artillery pieces, and armored vehicles that equipped the Red Army.

The final victory of the Soviet Union is, however, a testament to the tough, fierce, and brave Russian soldier.  His image, the hardened veteran soldier sitting atop a T-34 with PPSh in hand, scanning for a glimpse of the hated enemy, his mustard-colored quilt uniform covered with dust and snow, will endure for centuries in the collective consciousness of the Russian people.

The German invasion of the Soviet Union has never been comprehensively treated.  The subject is far too large.  It is too complex and incapable of being understood, except gradually, within the context of its salient events, and those of the rest of the world during and since.  A thousand volume work on the subject would still require an explanation and a qualification that such a work was by no means all-inclusive.  Yet, it remains one of the most compelling subjects for historians, social and military, because of the world-altering impact of the events themselves and their decades-long aftermath.   The magnitude of the struggle defies modern understanding.   As does the agony of the armies and the peoples locked in the grips of that mortal struggle.

And so it is likely to remain.  And it began with the flash of cannon and the roar of engines, in the morning darkness, seventy-one years ago today.

PS:  I am humbled and grateful to xbradtc for allowing me the intellectual pleasure of writing on this blog.  And for his unwavering faith that a Marine actually knew how to write, and that I wouldn’t eat the crayons.

15 thoughts on ““The World Will Hold Its Breath””

  1. Marine, I agree with MikeD, *FINE WRITING*. There is just one tiny issue, in your PS, your critics would be asking, “What’s a crayon?” “Is it some type of new Military Technology or Weapon?”

    1. Yes, a new technology that, when applied to manila construction paper, creates a mobile Power Point capability that doesn’t need a computer or power source. Once it goes through DoD procurement process, a crayon/construction paper “one-up” unit will have a unit price of about $84,000 each.

      And the blue ones are edible. Just ask Donna Liberty.

  2. The initial German campaign showed both tactical and even operational brilliance foiled by a lack of strategic vision.

    The Germans had a great plan for invading the USSR, but none for defeating them. In later campaigns, the shift of focus from one objective to another repeatedly snatched defeat from the jaws of victory.

    Further, the tactical capabilities of the Germans were hampered by a lack of robust logistical capabilities. For all their capable tanks, much of their artillery and logistical trains were horse drawn. The Germans simply had no concept of supporting vast army groups at the incredible distances of the Eastern Front, an area with limited rail capability and virtually no road network. That they ,managed as well as they did is a testament to operator ingenuity more than strategic planning.

    1. Brad,

      Well-said. The incredible expanse meant that the 3,700 aircraft that the three Luftflotten possessed were not nearly enough, nor was the logisitical support for the spearhead forces.

      I once attended a lecture that made the point that the most decisive weapon in the East was the 6X6 truck. The Soviets had them, capable of negotiating almost all the terrain. The Germans didn’t. He claimed (and I can believe it) that nearly 80% of German vehicle losses in the East were result of being bogged down in the mud and bad roads, or suffering mechanical breakdown in the harsh conditions. He had a point.

  3. What proof do you have that you didn’t eat the crayons?

    The reason the Germans had no strategic vision was because of the man in charge.

  4. I only ate the ones he had duplicates of….

    The OKW and OKH staffs allowed themselves to be bullied out of their better military judgment by der Fuhrer, and once in a completely subservient position, were unable in the slightest to restrain him and his demands and policies that weakened the effort in the East and elsewhere.

    Which is not to say that the “Hitler’s Meddling” school is correct in its entirety. The staff of OKW and OKH, along with the Luftwaffe staffs, made their share of mistakes and miscalculations. But it might serve as a cautionary tale about the relationship of senior military commanders to their head of state.

  5. When I ran “Military” (the magazine), most of my best authors were Marines.


  6. Yep, the Studebaker 6X6 carried the day for the Red Army. The Germans were stopped in South Bend, Indiana, if you will. The US also provided all of the Red Air Force’s FM band trancievers, and much of the Soviet Union’s radar was either provided by the US, or was copied US equipment. But it was still the tank rider, and his infantry compatriots that pushed Fritz back, at the end of the day.

    When I was at UW Madison, in the late 70’s early 80’s, Channel 3 used to show The Unknown War at midnight on Saturdays, a program about the Russian Front. A fascinating program, told from the Russian viewpoint. Given what we know about the way the Soviet Union treated it’s own people, and the way the Nazi’s treated everyone they deemed untermenchen, I was always just a little conflicted while watching, thinking it was too bad both sides couldn’t lose. The Mid Twentieth Century was a Nasty, Nasty time in history.

    Nice post URR.

    1. My recruiting company headquarters was in an office building just down the street from the old Studebaker factory. Many a time I passed it and could just imagine the thousands of trucks rolled out of there. It’s like seeing ghosts.

  7. The best talk that I ever with my dad was on a sunny June 22 (about 30 years ago) when we were working on his home. He wanted to take a “beer break”, and while drinking his beer looked at me funny and told me that it was 40 years to the day that he had learned about the German invasion of the Soviet Union. He was studying at the University in Kiev, and after a night of partying (and drinking) crashed at one of Kiev’s many small hills. At around 5:00 – 5:30 AM he was wakened by the sound of explosions in the center of the city. He rushed to the center, and for the first time in his life saw body parts and bombed out buildings. As he then told me …. he was actually lucky. As he learned later when he was fighting the Germans, German bombing raids always involved two waves of attacks separated by about half an hour. There was no second wave that day.

    He then rushed home and surprised his parents by telling them what he had seen (they lived about 20km south of Kiev). On the radio …. all that was playing was Russian military and patriotic music …. a few hours later he learned about the German invasion, and it was then that he realized that his life had changed forever. He stayed for a few days with his parents, and was then called up by the military. On the second week of the war, he left home and his life …. and my family’s …. changed forever.

    In 2001 …. 60 years after the start of the Great War …. in the early morning hours I retraced my father’s footsteps from the hilltop from where he was when the war started …. to the center of the city where the bombing had occurred …. and then the long walk to where my grandparents home use to be (it was destroyed during the war). Without question …. that day is one of the most emotional experiences that I have ever had.

    Thank you ultimaratioregis for your post …. you succeeded in bringing back for me a flood of memories … of the war and …. of my dad.

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